ISLAMIC EDUCATION AT THE HOLY PROPHET MUHAMMAD SAW PERIOD
The period of the prophet Muhammad SAW can be divided into two periods: Mecca and Medina period. In the first period, is since the prophet sent as messengers until the Hijra to Medina approximately 611-622 M, the Islamic education system was being focused only by the prophet Muhammad Saw. In fact, no one had the authority to give or determine the educational materials rather than him. The prophet was doing the education stealthily (bus-Sirri), particularly to his family, in addition to lectures and speech in the places where was visited by many people (bil Jahri). While the material was provided only around the ayahs (the messages of Allah SWT); 93 ayahs in Al-Quran and a number of instructions from him directly (read: Sunnah andHadist).
Before Islam comes, kuttab; the jahiliyyah "institutional" education had been established. Hijaz community had learnt to read and write to the community Hirah, the Hirah community had learnt to the Himyariyin community. The people who had first learnt to read and write among the Mecca society were Sufyan Ibn Umayah and Abu Qais ibn 'Abd al-Manaf, who both learned to Bisyr ibn' Abd al-Malik. To both of them, the society of Mecca learned to read and write. Therefore, presumably can be understood when Muhammad to do his mission in Islam (around 610 M), the Quraish society only has 17 men and 5 women who were clever enough to read and write.
In general, The materials of Al-Qu'ran and the advices are explain about the religious study that are focusing on theology and worship, such as faith in God, in His apostles, and days later, and the other kind of worship which is named as prayer. The Zakat itself at that time had not become of educational materials, because the charity was usually understood only as the charity to the poor children and orphans. In addition, the “behavior” material had also been taught so that the human must behave noble behavior with honor and avoid misconduct behavior. The scientific material had not been made as subjects. The prophet Muhammad SAW only gave an encouragement to consider the incident a human, animal, grow plants, and nature.<!--[endif]-->
In the period in Medina, 622-632 M or 1-11 hijriyyah, education who had done at the first by the prophet Muhammad SAW was building the mosque 'institutional'. Through the mosque, Muhammad SAW provided education and teaches of Islam. He strengthened the unity among the Moslems and scrape out the remnants hostility, especially among the Anshar society and the Muhajirin society. At this period, the ayah of the Qur'an as much as 22 surah had received, 1/3 of the content of Al-Qur’an
In general, educational material has four areas: religious education, moral education, health physical education, and knowledge related to the society. In the religious field, consist of faithful and worship, such as praying, fasting, Hajj, and charity. Behavior education put more emphasis on the moral basis that had been done in the period of Mecca. The physical healthiness education is more emphasis on the application of the values that is understood from applicable worship, such as the meaning wudhu, praying, fasting, and Hajj. While education which is related to the social field, is includes the social, political, economic, and legal. The society was given the education by prophet about the household life, inheritance, civil and criminal law, trade, statesman, and others.
The method that was developed by the prophet Muhammad SAW for the faithful field is the discussion method, hearth to hearth, and must be supported by the rational and scientific evidence. Rational (al-Aql) and scientific limitation are understood regarding the ability of thoughts of those who were invited to do the dialogue. The education methods that were used in the worship materials usually use the precedent method; the prophet Muhammad SAW showed as a precedent, gave guidance and examples, and also a clear practice, so that the community was easy to mimic him. While in the field of morals, the prophet Muhammad SAW read ayahs of the Al-Qur'an which contains the past stories of people then he described the meaning of the stories. Even so, on this behavior material the prophet more focused on the precedent method of morals. Prophet Muhammad SAW was showing in his lives as a man who has the glory and the majesty, whether in speech, deeds, and actions.
EDUCATION IN ISLAM AT KHULAFA AL-RASYIDIN PERIOD
(632-661 M / 12-41 Hijriyyah)
Education system in Islam as long as Khulafa Al-Rasyidin period (Abu Bakr, Umar, Usman, and Ali bin Abi Thalib) was done independently, did not managed by the government, except in the Umar bin Khattab caliph who added the curriculum inkuttab institutions. The friends who ware had knowledge of religious, their opened the education board, so that, for example in the Abu Bakr caliph, educational institutionskuttab achieved a meaningful level of progress. The progress of this kuttab institution was happened when people had conquered the Muslim areas and had established contacts with the developed nations. These education institutions had became very important so that the scholars argued that the teaching of Al-Qur'an is fardlu kifayah, if you have already taught, the others should not have to teach them)
According to Mahmud Yunus, when the students finish their education inkuttab levels of education, they continue to a more "high" level which is in the mosque. In mosque, there are two levels; the secondary level and the high level. The difference between those educations is quality of the teacher. At the secondary level, teachers have not reached the status of scholars, while at the high level; teachers are scholars who have deep knowledge and integrity of the piety and the devout that are recognized by the community.
In the secondary level of kuttab educational institution, the method of teaching is done one by one in the boarding school of Islamic (pesantren) tradition; this usual method is called sorogan. While education in the high level of the mosque, were doing in halaqah which was attended together by students. Education center as long as Khulafa al-Rasyidin period, was not only in Medina, but also in other cities, such as Mecca and Medina (Hijaz), Bashrah and Kufah (Iraq), Damsyik and Palestine (Syria),and Egypt (Qohirah). In the centre of this region, Islamic education was grown rapidly.
Educational materials that are taught in the al-Khalifah al-Rasyidin before the Umar ibn Khattab caliph (32 Hijriyyah / 644 M): for kuttab “institutional” are (a) learn to read and write, (b) read the Qur'an and memorize it , (c) learn the specifics practical of Islam, such as how to wudhu, praying, fasting, etc. When Umar ibn Khattab appointed as a caliph, he instructed the people of the city so that children are taught (a) swim, (b) riding a camel, (c) to discharge the arrow, (d) to read and memorize the lyric-poetic and the simple maxim. While the educational materials on the secondary level and high level are consist: (a) al-Qur'an and it meaning, (b) learning hadist and to collect it, and (c) fiqih (tasyri). Sciences and philosophy that were considered at that time, had not been known so it education did not exist. This is a reasonable thing, because remembering that the building of their social community was still in the development of insight to the Islam which were more focusing on the understanding the Al-Qur'an and Hadits literally.
EDUCATION IN ISLAM AT THE DYNASTY OF BANI UMAYYAH PERIOD (661-750 M / 41-132 Hijriyyah)
Essentially, Islamic education in the dynasty of Bani Umayyah is almost the same as education in the Khulafa Al-Rasyidin. But there are the differences and the development itself. The attention from the king in education field was showing less than the maximum development which was expected, so that the education did not run by the government setting, but by the scholars who have depth knowledge. Education policy that was issued by the government, was almost did not exist. So, the Islamic education system at that past was still running naturally.
There is any special dynamics that had become the characteristic of Islamic education at that time, when it was opened The Kalam discourse (read: discipline of theology) then was developed in the middle of the community. As understood from the history construction of Banu Umayyah which coincided with the appearance of polemic about the people who had big sinned, discussion about The Kalam discourse can not be avoided at their daily discussion, even though this discourse had been background by political factors. Then, this discussion was bringing out a number of groups that had a paradigm for thinking, independently.
Because of the condition at that time was colored by the political and group’s interest, in education world, especially in the literature world is very vulnerable regarding their identity. However, Arabic literature, both in the field of poetic, speech(khitabah), prose and art, began shows his resurrection. The king was preparing the beautiful meeting halls and can be entered only by the writer-scholars and the leading scholars. It is according to Muhammad 'Athiyah al-Abrasyi : "These central-hall of meeting have a special tradition that should be ignored; if someone enter when the caliph was there, they must dress dapper, clean, and neat. They must sit in a right place, should not guffaw, and do not spit, do not runs and do not exception when asked. They can not be voiced loud and must learn to be a good listener, as he must learn to exchange words politely and give the speaker the opportunity to explain discussion, and avoid using rough words and derisive with laughter. In the central-hall of meeting like this, provided specifics problems that need to be talked, discussed, and debated. "
At this time, can also be witnessed the translation activities from other languages into Arabic language. However, the translation is only limited to the sciences that have practical importance, such as chemistry, medicine, space, science, procedure, and arts building. In general, the movement of this translation is limited; it was doing by certain people and for their own business, wasn’t doing by stimulation from the government and wasn’t being build as an institutional. According to Franz Rosenthal, the person who did this translation was Khalid ibn Yazid, Muawiyah's grandson. In addition to some of the above materials, in this period also seems to perpetuate the sciences that are placed in the past, such as the science of tafsir. Science commentary this would be more and have a strategic significance.
In addition, because of the expansion of Islam to some regions outside the Arab, it brings consequences that the sense of art in Arabic literary had decreased. Beside that, because of many people who converts their belief into Islam, the language of al-Qur'an were being polluted in some of particular community circulation and the meaning of al-Qur'an only had been used for other purposes of that particular community. Pollution of Qur'an is also caused by interpretation factor which is based on Israiliyat and Nasraniyat stories. At the same time, achieved-progress in education field was the knowledge of nahwu that had been developed, this knowledge used to provide punctuation, recording of language rules, and historical of it language. Although there was occurring the differences at inside of making process in nahwuknowledge, but this is a discipline in the characteristics of progress this time.
Beside this tafsir discipline, the hadist and the knowledge of hadist get a serious attention. The importances of hadist chronically that would be responsible both scientifically and morally, was more getting a high of attention. However, the success that had reached was still to find the spirit of hadist, had not reached the stage of codification. The Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz caliph who lead only two years (99-101 Hijriyyah / 717-720 M), ever send a letter to Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn Amir ibn Ham and to other Islamic-scholars, to write and collect hadits. However, until the end of the government period, it was not been applied. Even so, the Umar ibn al-Aziz caliph had initiate to the alternative education methods, which are the Islamic-scholars need to explore the hadits to various places and to people that know about it, which was then considered to be known as the rihlah method.
On law of Fiqh fields, the outline can be divided into two groups, the expert ofAl-ra'y group and the expert Ahl al-hadist group. For the first groups developed the Islamic law by using the analogy (read: qiyas) if there is a problem that the law had not been determined. This group was developed in Iraq and was promoted by Syuriah ibn al-Harith (78 H / 697 M, died.), Qais ibn Alqamah (62 H / 681 M, died.), Masruq al-Ajda (63 H / 682 M, died), al-Aswad ibn Yazid (95 H / 913 M, died), then is followed by Ibrahim al- Nahlawi (95 H / 913 M, died), and Amr ibn al-Syurahbil Sya'by (104 H./ 722 M, died). After that, was replaced by Hammad ibn Abi Sulaiman (120 H / 737 M, died) who were became a teacher of Abu Hanifah then.
The second group, Ahl al-hadith, is more consistent on the ayahs literally, even this group was not usual gave the fatwa if there is not have any ayahs of Al-Qur'an orhadist explained. The initiators was included Syihab Ibn al Zuhri (124 H / 741 M, died), and Nafi 'Maula' Abdullah ibn Umar (117 H / 735 M, died), both were the teacher of Imam Malik ibn Anas (117 H / 735 M, died). At this time, the dynamics of the fiqh discipline showed a very meaningful development. This period come up a number of Muslims combatants (mujtahid-mujtahid fiqh). When the end of the Umayyah dynasty, fiqh sect-leaders had been born namely Imam Abu Hanifah in Iraq, (born; 80 H /699 M) and Imam Malik ibn Anas in Medina (born; 96 H / 714 M),while the Imam al-Syafi'i and Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal was born in the Abbasiyah.
Among the services of Banu Umayah dynasty in education field, according to Prof Dr. Hasan Langgulung, is to emphasize the scientific character of the mosque so that the mosque would be the development center of the science at university in Islamic community. Within this emphasis, in the mosque taught a few kind of knowledge, such as poetic, literature, story of nation's past-story, and theology(knowledge of the Godhead) using the debate methods. Thus, the period between the beginnings of second century until the end of third Hijriyyah century, the era of education mosque was the most brilliant.
4. EDUCATION IN ISLAM AT BANU ABASIYYAH DYNASTY PERIOD
(132-150 H / 656 -1258 M)
Charles Michael Stanton concluded that throughout the period of classical Islam, the determination of the education system and curriculum were in the hands of the Islamic-scholars, groups of people who was read and accepted as authoritative in the matters of religion and law, was not determined by the structure of government who had power at that time. However, this conclusion could not be maintained fully, especially when was faced with the fact the case of al-Mustansiriyah as a madrasaheducation institutions. It’s similar according the research results of Hisam Nashabe, the goerment were doing the state-control of the influence caused by madrasah, and also conducted investigations at their teaching methods. According this kind of intervention it was possible that the government (state) set a curriculum structure which was run by educational institutions in the large community or society.
To neutralize the debate above, presumably the Stanton’s conclusion was not more aimed at educational institutions that have shape such as madrasah, his conclusion was more aimed at kuttab. The reason why that the education system which was operated by the madrasah, in fact had particular interests, either for sectsfiqh interest, or theology interest, or political interests. Further more, in the tradition of classical education; madrasah was built on the basis of someone who was doingwakaf, and usually had the target objectives of each.
According to Hasan 'Abd al-'Al, an expert in Islamic education from Thantha University, on his thesis he mentioned seven institutions that have been established at The Dynasty of Bani Abbasiyah period, especially in the 4th century of Hijriyyah. The seven institutions are: (a) the basic educations (al-kuttab), (b) the mosque institutions(al-masjid), (c) the book-stall traders (c) al-Hawanit al-Waraqin, (d) the place of Islamic-scholars (manazil al-'ulama), (e) the studio of art and literature (al-shalunat al-adabiyah), (f) The library (dawr al-kutub wa dawr al - I1m), and (g) The school of educational institutions (al-madrasah). All these institutions have special characteristics and studies of each. Even so, in general, all institutions can be classified into three levels. First, the base level consists of kuttab, houses, shops, markets, and the palace. Second, the school level schools that include a mosque, art and science studio, as advanced lessons in kuttab. Third, the higher education level which includes a mosque, madrasah, and library, such as Bait al-Hikmah in Baghdad and the Dar al-'Ulum in Cairo.
At the first level; low levels of education, the curriculum which were taught include: (a) to read and memorize it, (b) the specifics core of Islam, such as wudhu, praying, and fasting, (c) to write, (d) the stories of influenced-people, (e) to read and memorize the Islamic-poetics or lyrics, (f) to count, and (g) the specifics of nahwu andsharaf. Even so, the curriculum like this could not be found in other regions, each region were different. For instance, The Ibn Khaldun quoted by Hasan 'Abd al' Al, in Morocco (Maghribi) only taught al-Qur'an and it written (rasm). In Andalusia, were taught al-Qur'an, writing poetic, the spesifics of nahwu and sharaf, and it calligraphy(khath). In Tunisia (Afriqiah) taught al-Qur'an, hadist and the specifics of Islam theology, but rather to the recitation of al-Qur'an.
Time study in kuttab was conducted in the morning until the time of Asharprayer, start on Saturday until Thursday, while Friday was a holiday. Further more, public holidays were also happen every 1st of Syawal, and three days in Idul Adha festivity. The lesson hours are usually divided by three: First, al-Qur'an lessons starting from the morning until the time Dhuha. Second, the lesson of writing begins at the time Dhuha to Zhuhur time. After that, the children may go home for lunch. Third, other lessons, such as the nahwu, Arabic language, poetic (lyric), math, etc was starting after Zhuhur until the end of the day (Ashar). At this lowest-level, did not use the classical system, so that there ware no benches, tables, and board. The teacher who taught the students, need to take turns one by one. Likewise, there was no standard book used.
So that, the basic education level, the method used was a method of repetition and recitation. Which mean, the teacher repeat reading of al-Qur'an in front of students and students were required to follow them, and then know very well that reading by their memorize. In fact, this memorizing session was not limited to the al-Qur'an or hadist material, but also in other knowledge. It was no exception to versify Islamic-lyrics lessons, the teacher taught the lyric with a song (wazn), so that it was an easy way for most students were able to memorize it vastly.
In the middle education level, were provided lessons as follows: (a) Al-Qur'an, (b) The Arabic language and literature, (c) fiqh, (d) tafsir, (e) hadist, (f) nahwu / sharaf / balaghah, (g) exact sciences, (h) mantiq, (i) astronomy, (j) history, (k) natural sciences, (1) medical science, (m) music. As well as at low level of education, the curriculum at secondary level of education in some areas or regions was also different.
According to Hasan 'Abd al-'Al, the methodology tailored to the material which was concerned. According to him, the outline of teaching method was being divided into two methods. First, the teaching method of Islamic religious field (al-manhaj al-diniy al-adabiy) was applied to the following materials: (a) Fiqh (Ulm al-fiqh), (b) grammar (Nabw al-Ulm), (c) theology (Ulm al-Kalam), (d) writing (al-kitabah), (e) lyrics (arudh), (f) history (Ulm al-akhbar, especially Islamic history). Second, the teaching method of intellectual field (manhaj al'ilmiy Ilm al-adabiy), which included sports (al-riyadhah), exact-sciences (al-thabi'iyah), philosophy (al falasafah),medicine (tbibb), and music that had been translated into Arabic, and the knowledge of language and religions.
The high levels of education was looked have differences in their educational institutions respectively. However, in general, higher education institutions have a two-level faculty: First, the faculty of religion knowledge and the faculty of language and literature of Arabic. This faculty was reviewed the following sciences: (a) the tafsir of Al-Qur'an, (b) Hadist, (c) Fiqh and Ushul al-Fiqh, (d) Nahwu / Sharaf, (e) Balaghah, (f) the language and literature of Arabic. Second, the faculty of wisdom (philosophy),this faculty were studying: (a) mantiq, (b) natural sciences and chemical, (c) music, (d) exact sciences, (e) geometry, (f) astronomy, (g) theology, (h) zoology, (i) phyto-sciences, and (j) medical science. All these subjects were taught in universities and had not held a specialization of particular subjects. That specialization was determined after graduate from university, based on their talent and tendency of each after teaching practice in several years.
This was evidenced by Ibn Sina, according to the paper wrote by Thabaqat Athibba; after Ibn Sina completed the secondary level of his education in 17 years of age, he learned more than 1.5 years. He was repeating of reading the mantiq and philosophy, and then exact sciences and natural sciences. Then, he reviewed theology by reading the book the Ma Warn al-Thabi'ah (metaphysics) of Aristoteles, and also the book of al-Farabi. Ibn Sina has the opportunity to read literatures in the library of al-Amir, such as medical books, Arabic language, versification (lyrics), fiqh, etc. Those literatures were read so that he gets a satisfactory result. He finished study there in 18 years of age. This is also valid as to others.
The methods that were used in educational institutions were hadaqah. Teacher sitting on a mat or floor, surrounded by students, then teachers provide materials to all students who attend. Number of students who will follow was depending on who was the teacher. If the teacher was the great Islamic-scholar who had great credibility, many students will come. However, if the teacher was only new scholars who had not any credibility, only a few students will come, and perhaps halaqah were closed. According to Charles Michael Stanton, before they were teaching the material, he must prepare ta’liqah first. Ta'liqah organized by individual teachers consist syllabus and notes that they already had when they were a student, or by results of reading, and opinions about the material concerned. Ta'liqah contains the details of the materials and lessons which can be delivered for four years period. Student copied ta'liqah was in the process of dictation, most of their rihlah were downright copying. However, some of the others add on a copy of this ta'liqah with their opinions separately, so that theirta'liqah was expected as personal reflection on lecture material delivered.
According to Hasan 'Abd al-'Al, methods of education that was done on the levels of this high-level method include the following: First, the lecture method (al-muhadlarah). In this method, the teacher delivered the materials to all students with repeated-back so that students know very well what he/she say. On this method, divided into two ways, dictation methods (al-imla) and asking to the teacher methods(al qiraat wa al-Sheikh al-aw'ardl). Second, the discussion method (al-munadzarah),which was on this method, was used to test the arguments that can be asked so it can be tested. This method by the Mu'tazilah was to be one of the most important bases in his education system. Third, the long-distance correspondent method (al ta'lim bil-murasilah) which was this method was one of the methods used by students who ask for a problem to the teachers who have long-distance between them by writing, and teachers provided the answer in writing as well.
Fourth, the rihlah scientific method which was this method was done by the students both individually and groups by visiting the teachers to their house and usually who has long-distance far way, to discuss about a topic. The teachers who were teachers were usually considered have an expertise in their field. Students who have completed education, has a certificate awarded if they were have passed the test and able to answer questions asked during the test examination (munaqasah). The certificate provided sometimes in verbal or written. This certificate was not provided by the school, but by teachers who had educated them. Which mean, if they already hold the certificate, they allowed to hand down or delivered the lessons to other students.